Sugar contains four calories per gram (17 kilojoules). The scientific name of the carbohydrate sugar is sucrose or sucrose. Sugar, however, is under a lot of names known and it is added to many foods because it is cheap and very tasty. Sugar seems to have addictive properties which man is easy to eat too much of. A large amount of food sugar, throws the normal metabolism of the man confused. This is more likely to be overweight significantly. Also makes sure people eat sugar difficult to lose weight and the risk of diabetes (diabetes mellitus), Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases increases significantly. By eliminating sugar from the diet, through refined products not to eat themselves and do not add sugar, losing weight is easier.
Digestion and metabolism of sugar
Digestion of sugar
Sugar known by the scientific name (or sucrose) is a disaccharide. Disaccharides are simple sugars which are easily broken down by the digestive system through the enzymes disaccharide. Sucrose is composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The digestive system breaks it off with sucrose, the enzyme sucrase to the absorbable monosaccharides glucose and fructose.
Metabolism of sugar
The small intestine cells take up the glucose and fructose and then release it into the blood from the portal vein. Via the portal vein coming to the glucose and fructose in the liver. The liver can convert using hormone insulin glucose into glycogen and then save. The glucose can also be delivered to the blood by the liver, from where it to all the cells, but in particular, the muscle cells, brain cells, and fat cells flows. The muscle can burn the glucose or convert it into glycogen. For these processes is needed insulin. The fat cells burn glucose, or convert it to fat and store it. The brain cells burn glucose. Fructose has to be converted by the liver into glucose before the other cells in the body do something with it. However, when there is an excess of glucose in the blood, the liver will not convert the glucose into fructose, but rather convert it into fat. Namely, fructose can be converted very easily into fat.
Fructose is easily converted into fat
As has already been described fructose can be easily converted into fat. Gives fructose no satiety signal to the body. Where rising blood sugar levels are a signal to the brains that the body is saturated and no longer needs food, fructose does not cause here. This allows the body continues to believe that it is hungry and is eaten too much.
Sugar makes insulin levels rise rapidly, insulin makes you fat
The glucose sugar makes the blood sugar to rise rapidly. In response, the pancreas (pancreatic) insulin. Insulin stimulates the rapid glucose uptake of cells from the blood, stimulates the conversion of glucose into glycogen and promotes the conversion of glucose and fructose in bold. A rapid uptake of glucose from the blood allows for rapid blood glucose decrease which in turn is a stimulus to again to eat. Low blood sugar levels will make for a hunger signal in the brains, causing the urge to eat again increases. In addition, insulin is an anabolic hormone that also causes greasy build-stimulated lipolysis and inhibited. All of these effects combine to sugar thickens. In addition, the rapid blood glucose changes ensure that people quickly feel tired and have no energy. Namely, the blood rises quickly, but due to a large amount of insulin decreases blood glucose quickly. The brains have had too little time to absorb glucose and respond with fatigue.
Sugar tastes very good and is cheap
Besides that sugar metabolic pathways stimulate becoming fat, sugar is a very tasty (delicious) nutrient. Because sugar is so tasty, it is easily eaten too much. Products that contain a lot of sugar and fat, such as chocolate, peanuts chocolate, donuts and ice cream are all products which are very palatable. Sugar is tasty. Hyper tasty products stimulate ancient brain areas are focused on reward and survival. Hyper Tasty products stimulate the brains to keep eating the product. This yielded formerly an evolutionary advantage because people than could fill up a lot of energy in a short time. Because of this man could build in time a fat supply of shortage increased the chances of survival. Sugar is addictive could be called almost addictive products with sugar, because the ingestion of a small amount of sugar ensures the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brains. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that gives the feeling of reward. Dopamine also comes in large quantities, the use of alcohol, cocaine, heroin and other drugs. However, it must always more sugar which is eaten to release the same amount of dopamine in the brain. Sugar is tasty and cheap because sugar is tasty and cheap, it is added to many foods, such as jams (preservative), meat () pretzels, chips, candy, cakes, pastries and even bread. A small amount of sugar in products is already detected by the brains and ensures that the person quickly eats too much of the food product.